Development of clinical pharmacy services in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Canada, Germany, Japan, Kosovo, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Thailand, USA and correlation with educational standards, level of research, and implementation practices
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© 2018 Dustri-Verlag Dr. Karl Feistle. All rights reserved. Objective: This study aimed to compare determinants of professional development between different countries to identify barriers and facilitators of development towards clinical pharmacy services and stimulate discussion of under-used potential and opportunities. Materials: The study was conceived as a survey. The questionnaire was administered to a group of experts. Methods: The survey was conducted as a cross-sectional study with descriptive and correlation analysis. A questionnaire was developed and adjusted to the study focus, covering aspects on general regulations for community pharmacies, professional education, implementation of clinical pharmacy services, and research in patient care. Results were compared for analyses. Results: A total of twelve countries were included in this survey. Pharmacy studies took between 4 and 6 years plus residency in most countries. Curricula remained drug-oriented only in Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Germany; these three countries had the least pharmacotherapy content in their curricula. Canada, the USA, and Australia have established clinical pharmacy services in almost all fields of practice. Most other countries have implemented at least some clinical services, with the exception of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Germany, and Kosovo. The correlation coefficient between education, research, and implementation was 0.91. Conclusion: The results of the survey show that clinical pharmacy services are established to very different extents among the participating countries. The strong correlation suggests that achieving a successful transition in professional practice needs to address several aspects of education and research to reach progress. The collected data might help to identify potential areas of improvement to foster implementation of clinical pharmacy services.
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