The Risk of Neurodevelopmental Disabilities in Children of Immigrant and Refugee Parents: Current Knowledge and Directions for Future Research
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© 2017, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. This paper systematically reviewed the literature from 2002 to 2016 describing the risks of autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children of immigrant and refugee backgrounds. Compared to children of non-immigrant mothers, 10 studies found increased risk of autism and intellectual disability and four studies found increased risk of autism without identifying concomitant intellectual disability. Very high risks were observed if the mother’s country of birth was a developing country or region. One study found higher risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a sample of children who were refugees. Children of immigrant and refugee backgrounds from developing countries had greater risks of a neurodevelopmental disorder compared to their peers whose mother was locally born.
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