Coordination of heat pumps, electric vehicles and AGC for efficient LFC in a smart hybrid power system via SCA-based optimized FOPID controllers
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© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Due to the high price of fossil fuels, the increased carbon footprint in conventional generation units and the intermittent functionality of renewable units, alternative sources must contribute to the load frequency control (LFC) of the power system. To tackle the challenge, dealing with controllable loads, the ongoing study aims at efficient LFC in smart hybrid power systems. To achieve this goal, heat pumps (HPs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are selected as the most effective controllable loads to contribute to the LFC issue. In this regard, the EVs can be controlled in a bidirectional manner as known charging and discharging states under a smart structure. In addition, regarding the HPs, the power consumption is controllable. As the main task, this paper proposes a fractional order proportional integral differential (FOPID) controller for coordinated control of power consumption in HPs, the discharging state in EVs and automatic generation control (AGC). The parameters of the FOPID controllers are optimized simultaneously by the sine cosine algorithm (SCA), which is a new method for optimization problems. In the sequel, four scenarios, including step and random load changes, aggregated intermittent generated power from wind turbines, a random load change scenario and a sensitivity analysis scenario, are selected to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed SCA-based FOPID controllers in a hybrid two-area power system.
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