Strengthening resilience in military officer cadets: A group-randomized controlled trial of coping and emotion regulatory self-reflection training
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Copyright © American Psychological Association, 2019. This paper is not the copy of record and may not exactly replicate the authoritative document published in the APA journal. Please do not copy or cite without author's permission. The final article is available, upon publication, at: 10.1037/ccp0000356
Objective: This group-randomized control trial examined the efficacy of guided coping and emotion regulatory self-reflection as a means to strengthen resilience by testing the effects of the training on anxiety and depression symptoms and perceived stressor frequency after an intensive stressor period. Method: The sample was 226 officer cadets training at the Royal Military College, Australia. Cadets were randomized by platoon to the self-reflection (n = 130) or coping skills training (n = 96). Surveys occurred at 3 time points: Baseline, immediately following the final reflective session (4-weeks postbaseline), and longer-term follow-up (3-months postinitial follow-up). Results: There were no significant baseline differences in demographic or outcome variables between the intervention groups. On average, cadets commenced the resilience training with mild depression and anxiety symptoms. Analyses were conducted at the individual-level after exploring group-level effects. No between-groups differences were observed at initial follow-up. At longer-term follow-up, improvements in mental health outcomes were observed for the self-reflection group, compared with the coping skills group, on depression (Cohen's d = 0.55; 95% CI [0.24, 0.86]), anxiety symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.69; 95% CI [0.37, 1.00]), and perceived stressor frequency (Cohen's d = 0.46; 95% CI [0.15, 0.77]). Longitudinal models demonstrated a time by condition interaction for depression and anxiety, but there was only an effect of condition for perceived stressor frequency. Mediation analyses supported an indirect effect of the intervention on both anxiety and depression via perceived stressor frequency. Conclusions: Findings provide initial support for the use of guided self-reflection as an alternative to coping skills approaches to resilience training.
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