Renal infarction caused by medium vessel vasculitis
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A 44-year-old Italian man presented to the emergency department on three occasions over 4 days with severe left flank pain. Initial investigations including a renal tract ultrasound were normal and he was discharged with analgaesia. On his third presentation, a CT angiogram was performed due to persisting pain, which demonstrated infarction of his left kidney as well as thickening of the anterior branch of left renal artery and complete occlusion with focal intimal dissection of the coeliac artery. His antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody was negative. A medium vessel vasculitis was suspected and confirmed on positron emission tomography-CT, which revealed increased metabolic activity involving the right internal mammary artery and coeliac artery. Treatment with pulse methylprednisolone was started followed by a tapering prednisolone regimen, with a rapid reduction in his inflammatory indices. Twenty-four months later his renal function remains normal off all immunosuppression.
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