Deep LOFAR observations of the merging galaxy cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301
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This article has been accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ©: 2017 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Previous studies have shown that CIZA J2242.8+5301 (the 'Sausage' cluster, z = 0.192) is a massive merging galaxy cluster that hosts a radio halo and multiple relics. In this paper, we present deep, high-fidelity, low-frequency images made with the LOw-Frequency Array (LOFAR) between 115.5 and 179 MHz. These images, with a noise of 140 µJy beam-1 and a resolution of ?beam = 7.3 arcsec × 5.3 arcsec, are an order of magnitude more sensitive and five times higher resolution than previous low-frequency images of this cluster. We combined the LOFAR data with the existing Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) (153, 323, 608 MHz) andWesterbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) (1.2, 1.4, 1.7, 2.3 GHz) data to study the spectral properties of the radio emission from the cluster. Assuming diffusive shock acceleration (DSA), we found Mach numbers of Mn = 2.7-0.3+0.6 and Ms = 1.9-0.2+0.3 for the northern and southern shocks. The derived Mach number for the northern shock requires an acceleration efficiency of several percent to accelerate electrons from the thermal pool, which is challenging for DSA. Using the radio data, we characterized the eastern relic as a shock wave propagating outwards with aMach number of Me = 2.4-0.3+0.5, which is in agreement with MeX=2.5-0.2+0.6 that we derived from Suzaku data. The eastern shock is likely to be associated with the major cluster merger. The radio halo was measured with a flux of 346 ± 64 mJy at 145 MHz. Across the halo, we observed a spectral index that remains approximately constant aacross~1Mpc2145 MHz-2.3 GHz=-1.01 ± 0.10) after the steepening in the post-shock region of the northern relic. This suggests a generation of post-shock turbulence that re-energies aged electrons.
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