Model predictive-based secondary frequency control considering heat pump water heaters
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The extensive development of renewable energies in power systems causes several problems due to intermittent output power generation. To tackle the challenge, demand response contribution to ancillary service is currently well recognized under the smart grid infrastructure. The application of the heat pump water heater (HPWH) as a controllable load in primary frequency control is well presented in the literature; however, the motivation of this paper is to use HPWHs for secondary frequency control. To this end, a model predictive control (MPC) method for a two-area power system incorporating HPWHs to contribute to secondary frequency control is proposed in this paper. A detailed model of HPWH is employed as a controllable load to control the power consumption during water heating. The MPC method predicts the future control signals using a quadratic programming-based optimization. It uses the system model, past inputs and outputs, as well as system control signals to predict the next signals. The effective performance of the proposed method for the two-area power system with HPWH is demonstrated for different scenarios of load changes, intermittent renewable power generation and parameter variations as the sensitivity analysis.
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