Development of an Underground In-Situ Stress Monitoring System for Mining Safety Using Multi Sensor Cell and Wi-Fi Direct Technology
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The increasing global demand for minerals contributes to the necessity of mineral extraction at greater depths. However, the increase of rock in-situ stress with depth leads to higher risk and increasingly dangerous working conditions faced by mining workers. The presence of shafts, tunnels and other excavations necessary in mine expansions further increase the complexity of underground mines. This complexity of underground stress conditions increases the importance of monitoring and analysis of underground strata conditions, as early detection is crucial in the prevention of rock failure and the occurrence of fatal accidents. A better comprehension of the underground stress conditions in a mine is vital in considering mine design and supports that need to be installed. The development of an efficient monitoring system that can obtain and transmit data is necessary. This paper suggests the utilisation of a multi sensor cell that combines the functions of an accelerometer, gyroscope and a magnetometer, as well as strain gauge displacements to continuously measure the stress conditions of bedrock. The obtained data is then conveyed to the surface using a Wi-Fi Direct communication system and analysed to comprehend the changes in the underground stress conditions. The latter part of this paper also describes the experiments conducted to verify the ability of the proposed monitoring system.
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