Self-efficacy beliefs: Experiences of adults who stutter
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© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Purpose: Childhood-onset stuttering is a complex and multifaceted disorder. Intervention for adults who stutter has historically addressed speech fluency more so than psychosocial aspects of the disorder, including the nature of the individual's self-efficacy beliefs concerning their confidence in their capacity to enact change. Self-efficacy is an important construct related to quality of life, resilience, and maintenance of treatment gains for adults who stutter. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the nature of the self-efficacy beliefs expressed by adults who stutter in order to inform efficacious and holistic intervention for these individuals. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 adults who stutter to describe their experiences as a person who stutters and elucidate the nature of their self-efficacy beliefs. Results: Thematic analysis identified several major themes that provided novel insight into the complex nature of the self-efficacy beliefs experienced by adults who stutter: speaker experiences shaped communicative confidence, there was a conflict between communication and fluency, stuttering was viewed as more than fluency, and individual perspectives shaped communicative confidence, as did the pervading influence of self. The notion that fluency and confidence are inextricably linked was evident within and across each major theme. Conclusion: These preliminary findings provide further support for a multidimensional approach to the treatment of adults who stutter. Findings will be used to inform a novel integrated fluency and psychosocial intervention for adults who stutter that addresses fluency and self-efficacy concurrently, with a view of engendering durable improvements in speech fluency and communicative confidence.
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