Diabetes and the female disadvantage
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We have produced compelling evidence that women are subject to a higher relative increase in their risk of coronary heart disease and stroke following a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. Thus, in terms of vascular risk, diabetes confers a female disadvantage. This excess risk could be due to three main factors. First, it is conceivable that this is merely a mathematical artifact caused by the relatively low background rate for cardiovascular diseases among women, compared with men. Second, it could be due to women receiving poorer care following their diagnosis of diabetes than men; for instance, due to physician bias. Third, certain underlying biological differences in women and men, most likely related to the distribution of body fat, could explain this female disadvantage.
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The experiences of and meaning for women living and coping with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of qualitative evidenceLi, J.; Drury, Vicki; Taylor, B. (2012)Background: Effective management of diabetes not only relies on lifestyle modification and adherence to a treatment regime, but also the ability to cope with the impact of the disease on daily activities. Stress associated ...
Sex differences in body anthropometry and composition in individuals with and without diabetes in the UK BiobankPeters, S.; Huxley, Rachel; Woodward, M. (2016)OBJECTIVE: Type I and II diabetes are associated with a greater relative risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in women than in men. Sex differences in adiposity storage may explain these findings. METHODS: A cross-sectional ...
Sex-specific relevance of diabetes to occlusive vascular and other mortality: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual data from 980?793 adults from 68 prospective studiesGnatiuc, L.; Herrington, W.; Halsey, J.; Tuomilehto, J.; Fang, X.; Kim, H.; De Bacquer, D.; Dobson, A.; Criqui, M.; Jacobs, D.; Leon, D.; Peters, S.; Ueshima, H.; Sherliker, P.; Peto, R.; Collins, R.; Huxley, Rachel; Emberson, J.; Woodward, M.; Lewington, S.; Aoki, N.; Arima, H.; Arnesen, E.; Aromaa, A.; Assmann, G.; Bachman, D.; Baigent, C.; Bartholomew, H.; Benetos, A.; Bengtsson, C.; Bennett, D.; Björkelund, C.; Blackburn, H.; Bonaa, K.; Boyle, E.; Broadhurst, R.; Carstensen, J.; Chambless, L.; Chen, Z.; Chew, S.; Clarke, R.; Cox, C.; Curb, J.; D'Agostino, R.; Date, C.; Davey Smith, G.; De Backer, G.; Dhaliwal, S.; Duan, X.; Ducimetiere, P.; Duffy, S.; Eliassen, H.; Elwood, P.; Empana, J.; Garcia-Palmieri, M.; Gazes, P.; Giles, G.; Gillis, C.; Goldbourt, U.; Gu, D.; Guasch-Ferre, M.; Guize, L.; Haheim, L.; Hart, C.; Hashimoto, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Heng, D.; Hjermann, I.; Ho, S.; Hobbs, M.; Hole, D.; Holme, I.; Horibe, H.; Hozawa, A.; Hu, F.; Hughes, K.; Iida, M.; Imai, K.; Imai, Y.; Iso, H.; Jackson, R.; Jamrozik, K.; Jee, S.; Jensen, G.; Jiang, C.; Johansen, N.; Jorgensen, T.; Jousilahti, P.; Kagaya, M.; Keil, J.; Keller, J.; Kim, I.; Kita, Y.; Kitamura, A.; Kiyohara, Y.; Knekt, P.; Knuiman, M.; Kornitzer, M.; Kromhout, D.; Kronmal, R. (2018)© 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license Background: Several studies have shown that diabetes confers a higher relative risk of vascular mortality among ...