Soil, Site, and Management Factors Affecting Cadmium Concentrations in Cacao-Growing Soils
|dc.contributor.author||Búllon Castillo, Adolfo|
|dc.identifier.citation||Scaccabarozzi, D. and Castillo, L. and Aromatisi, A. and Milne, L. and Búllon Castillo, A. and Muñoz-Rojas, M. 2020. Soil, Site, and Management Factors Affecting Cadmium Concentrations in Cacao-Growing Soils. Agronomy. 10 (6): Article No. 106.|
Soil contamination by potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) such as Cadmium (Cd), is a major environmental concern because of its potential implications to human health. Cacao-based products have been identified as food sources with relatively high Cd contents. Here, we assessed Cd concentrations of cacao-growing soils in four major agricultural regions with contrasting climates in Peru, one of the main exporters of cacao products worldwide. At each study site (n = 40) a broad range of potential factors affecting Cd concentration in soils, i.e., site, soil and management, were evaluated. Concentrations of Cd ranged between 1.1–3.2 mg kg−1. Mean values per region were below 2.7 mg kg−1, usually established as upper-limit for non-polluted soils. Cadmium concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in sites at higher elevations and in a temperate, drier climate. Cadmium correlated positively with pH (r = 0.57; p < 0.05) and was higher (p < 0.001) in alluvial sediments and Leptosols. Management factors (cacao variety, cultivation year, management practices) and agroecology did not affect Cd concentrations directly. Overall, this study highlights the importance of considering a broad range of both natural and anthropogenic factors to evaluate Cd concentrations in cacao-growing soils and contribute to effective and sustainable cacao production by improving land management and planning.
|dc.title||Soil, Site, and Management Factors Affecting Cadmium Concentrations in Cacao-Growing Soils|
© 2020 The Authors. Published by MDPI Publishing.
|curtin.department||School of Molecular and Life Sciences (MLS)|
|curtin.department||School of Earth and Planetary Sciences (EPS)|
|curtin.faculty||Faculty of Science and Engineering|
|curtin.contributor.orcid||Scaccabarozzi, Daniela [0000-0003-2446-8794]|
|curtin.contributor.orcid||Milne, Lynne [0000-0003-4542-6913]|
|curtin.contributor.scopusauthorid||Milne, Lynne |