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dc.contributor.authorJain, Kokil
dc.contributor.authorJajodia, Isha
dc.contributor.authorSharma, Piyush
dc.contributor.authorSingh, Gurinder
dc.identifier.citationJain, K., Jajodia, I., Sharma, P. and Singh, G. 2020. Brand bravery: Conceptualization, scale development and validation. Journal of Product and Brand Management.


Brands today operate in a dynamic business environment, which often requires them to take courageous actions, from taking a stand on controversial issues to responding to changing market needs. However, these actions are not merely strategic but also represent a unique aspect of the brands’ identity, which includes holding up to their core values and being resilient to social pressure. To better understand this positive virtue, the current study introduces the concept of brand bravery – a novel brand archetype that emulates the brand’s distinct identity. This study aims to conceptualize brand bravery and develop a psychometrically sound scale to measure it and investigate its relationship with positive brand relationship outcomes.


Two qualitative studies were conducted to identify the dimensions of perceived brand bravery. Three empirical studies develop and validate the proposed measurement scale and confirm the construct’s nomological validity by proposing a framework that explains the outcomes of perceived brand bravery.


Results from multiple studies support a seven-factor second-order reflective scale of perceived brand bravery, with dimensions altruism, bold, courageous, determined, enduring, fearless and gritty. The construct of brand bravery is found discriminant from other conceptually distinct but related brand attributes. Nomological validity tests further suggest that perceived brand bravery leads to positive consumer-related outcomes such as brand advocacy behaviors, positive attitude and consumer brand identification.

Practical implications

Brand bravery provides a vital roadmap to marketers who have sought to create a leading brand that can stay relevant in times of disruption. The multi-factor scale can help managers track, which dimension of the brand bravery scale is more relevant for shaping overall bravery perception.


The study introduces a novel brand attribute that has not been previously discussed beyond social and moral psychology literature. It conceptualizes brand bravery that will strengthen the understanding of this specific brand characteristic and provides a practical scale to measure brand bravery.

dc.titleBrand bravery: Conceptualization, scale development and validation
dc.typeJournal Article
dcterms.source.titleJournal of Product and Brand Management

This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Product and Brand Management.

curtin.departmentSchool of Marketing
curtin.accessStatusOpen access
curtin.facultyFaculty of Business and Law
curtin.contributor.orcidSharma, Piyush [0000-0002-6953-3652]
curtin.contributor.researcheridSharma, Piyush [D-3562-2012]
curtin.contributor.scopusauthoridSharma, Piyush [26434453900]

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