Clinical Applications of Patient-Specific 3D Printed Models in Cardiovascular Disease: Current Status and Future Directions
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Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been increasingly used in medicine with applications in many di erent fields ranging from orthopaedics and tumours to cardiovascular disease. Realistic 3D models can be printed with di erent materials to replicate anatomical structures and pathologies with high accuracy. 3D printed models generated from medical imaging data acquired with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound augment the understanding of complex natomy and pathology, assist preoperative planning and simulate surgical or interventional procedures to achieve precision medicine for improvement of treatment outcomes, train young or junior doctors to gain their confidence in patient management and provide medical education to medical students or healthcare professionals as an e ective training tool. This article provides an overview of patient-specific 3D printed models with a focus on the applications in cardiovascular disease including: 3D printed models in congenital heart disease, coronary artery disease, pulmonary embolism, aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection, and aortic valvular disease. Clinical value of the patient-specific 3D printed models in these areas is presented based on the current literature, while limitations and future research in 3D printing including bioprinting of cardiovascular disease are highlighted.
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