Effect of biases in integrity monitoring for RTK positioning
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In road transport, continuous high-accuracy positioning is required in real time. To ensure the proper functioning and safety of vehicular applications, integrity monitoring (IM) is needed to protect from the positioning errors under a certain alert limit (AL) with a pre-defined probability of misleading information (MI). In this study, a detailed threat model is developed for real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning application of short baselines. The model distinguishes between ambiguity-float and -fixed scenarios, and considers the influences of phase and code multipath as well as between-receiver atmospheric residuals. With the float ambiguities temporally constrained, the bias contribution that propagates with time-updated ambiguities was studied analytically for the horizontal protection level (HPL) in IM. Based on real data from both static and kinematic experiments, HPL was computed along the direction of the semi-major axis of the horizontal error ellipse. In ambiguity-float and -fixed cases, the HPL was mostly several meters and decimetres, respectively. It was found that time-propagated biases play a dominant role in the ambiguity-float HPL, and among them, phase and code multipath had in general the largest contributions. For ambiguity-fixed case, the phase multipath was found to play a dominant role in the HPL. This shows the importance of considering the biases in the RTK IM for both the ambiguity-float and -fixed scenarios. Given a horizontal alert limit (HAL) of 5 m, the availabilities of ambiguity-float solutions were low, i.e., below 50% for the static roof tests and below 5% for the kinematic road tests. For the ambiguity-fixed scenario, with HAL at 0.5 m, integrity availability was nearly 100% for the static roof tests and above 85% for the kinematic road tests.
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