Affect, attention, or anticipatory arousal? Human blink startle modulation in forward and backward affective conditioning
MetadataShow full item record
Affect modulates the blink startle reflex in the picture-viewing paradigm, however, the process responsible for reflex modulation during conditional stimuli (CSs) that have acquired valence through affective conditioning remains unclear. In Experiment 1, neutral shapes (CSs) and valenced or neutral pictures (USs) were paired in a forward (CS ? US) manner. Pleasantness ratings supported affective learning of positive and negative valence. Post-acquisition, blink reflexes were larger during the pleasant and unpleasant CSs than during the neutral CS. Rather than affect, attention or anticipatory arousal were suggested as sources of startle modulation. Experiment 2 confirmed that affective learning in the picture-picture paradigm was not affected by whether the CS preceded the US. Pleasantness ratings and affective priming revealed similar extents of affective learning following forward, backward or simultaneous pairings of CSs and USs. Experiment 3 utilized a backward conditioning procedure (US ? CS) to minimize effects of US anticipation. Again, blink reflexes were larger during CSs paired with valenced USs regardless of US valence implicating attention rather than anticipatory arousal or affect as the process modulating startle in this paradigm. Crown Copyright © 2008.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Luck, C.; Lipp, Ottmar (2017)Blink startle magnitude is linearly modulated by affect such that, relative to neutral stimuli, startle magnitude is inhibited during pleasant stimuli and potentiated during unpleasant stimuli. Andreatta, Mühlberger, ...
Adam, A.; Mallan, K.; Lipp, Ottmar (2009)The interactive effects of emotion and attention on attentional startle modulation were investigated in two experiments. Participants performed a discrimination and counting task with two visual stimuli during which ...
Implicit evaluations and physiological threat responses in people with persistent low back pain and fear of bendingCaneiro, J.; O'Sullivan, Peter; Smith, Anne; Moseley, G.; Lipp, Ottmar (2017)Background and aims: Pain and protective behaviour are dependent on implicit evaluations of danger to the body. However, current assessment of perceived danger relies on self-report, on information of which the person is ...