Teucrium polium: Potential Drug Source for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
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© 2022 The Authors. Published by MDPI Publishing.
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rising globally and this disease is proposed to be the next pandemic after COVID-19. Although the cause of type 2 diabetes mellitus is unknown, it is believed to involve a complex array of genetic defects that affect metabolic pathways which eventually lead to hyperglycaemia. This hyperglycaemia arises from an inability of the insulin-sensitive cells to sufficiently respond to the secreted insulin, which eventually results in the inadequate secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. Several treatments, utilising a variety of mechanisms, are available for type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, more medications are needed to assist with the optimal management of the different stages of the disease in patients of varying ages with the diverse combinations of other medications co-administered. Throughout modern history, some lead constituents from ancient medicinal plants have been investigated extensively and helped in developing synthetic antidiabetic drugs, such as metformin. Teucrium polium L. (Tp) is a herb that has a folk reputation for its antidiabetic potential. Previous studies indicate that Tp extracts significantly decrease blood glucose levels r and induce insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells in vitro. Nonetheless, the constituent/s responsible for this action have not yet been elucidated. The effects appear to be, at least in part, attributable to the presence of selected flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin, and rutin). This review aims to examine the reported glucose-lowering effect of the herb, with a keen focus on insulin secretion, specifically related to type 2 diabetes mellitus. An analysis of the contribution of the key constituent flavonoids of Tp extracts will also be discussed.
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