Artificial Intelligence (Enhanced Super-Resolution Generative Adversarial Network) for Calcium Deblooming in Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: A Feasibility Study
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Background: The presence of heavy calcification in the coronary artery always presents a challenge for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in assessing the degree of coronary stenosis due to blooming artifacts associated with calcified plaques. Our study purpose was to use an advanced artificial intelligence (enhanced super-resolution generative adversarial network [ESRGAN]) model to suppress the blooming artifact in CCTA and determine its effect on improving the diagnostic performance of CCTA in calcified plaques.
Methods: A total of 184 calcified plaques from 50 patients who underwent both CCTA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) were analysed with measurements of coronary lumen on the original CCTA, and three sets of ESRGAN-processed images including ESRGAN-high-resolution (ESRGAN-HR), ESRGAN-average and ESRGAN-median with ICA as the reference method for determining sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV).
Results: ESRGAN-processed images improved the specificity and PPV at all three coronary arteries (LAD-left anterior descending, LCx-left circumflex and RCA-right coronary artery) compared to original CCTA with ESRGAN-median resulting in the highest values being 41.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 30%, 52.7%) and 26.9% (95% CI: 22.9%, 31.4%) at LAD; 41.7% (95% CI: 22.1%, 63.4%) and 36.4% (95% CI: 28.9%, 44.5%) at LCx; 55% (95% CI: 38.5%, 70.7%) and 47.1% (95% CI: 38.7%, 55.6%) at RCA; while corresponding values for original CCTA were 21.8% (95% CI: 13.2%, 32.6%) and 22.8% (95% CI: 20.8%, 24.9%); 12.5% (95% CI: 2.6%, 32.4%) and 27.6% (95% CI: 24.7%, 30.7%); 17.5% (95% CI: 7.3%, 32.8%) and 32.7% (95% CI: 29.6%, 35.9%) at LAD, LCx and RCA, respectively. There was no significant effect on sensitivity and NPV between the original CCTA and ESRGAN-processed images at all three coronary arteries. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was the highest with ESRGAN-median images at the RCA level with values being 0.76 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.89), 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.93), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.94) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.96) corresponding to original CCTA and ESRGAN-HR, average and median images, respectively.
Conclusions: This feasibility study shows the potential value of ESRGAN-processed images in improving the diagnostic value of CCTA for patients with calcified plaques.
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Finetuned Super-Resolution Generative Adversarial Network (Artificial Intelligence) Model for Calcium Deblooming in Coronary Computed Tomography AngiographySun, Zhonghua ; Ng, C.K.C. (2022)The purpose of this study was to finetune a deep learning model, real-enhanced super-resolution generative adversarial network (Real-ESRGAN), and investigate its diagnostic value in calcified coronary plaques with the aim ...
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