When responsive and reactive meet organic? Treatment implications of language use in the era of #BanBPSD
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The aetiopathogenesis of behaviours and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is often subjective, complex and multifaceted, produced by an array of contributing factors, including biomedical, psychological, environmental and/or social factors
Alongside other contributing factors, organic aetiology of BPSD should be considered when devising therapeutic management plans
Although considered last resort, time-limited antipsychotic treatment (≤3 months) may have a vital adjunct role in managing intractable, refractory, distressing and/or life-threatening BPSD, such as delusions and hallucinations; but only after person-centred psychosocial interventions are exhausted and fail to deliver any therapeutic response
If prescribed, careful monitoring of therapeutic responses and adverse effects of antipsychotics with de-prescribing plans should be a top priority, as these agents have limited efficacies and serious adverse outcomes (e.g., mortality)
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