Application of a cashew-based oxime in extracting Ni, Mn and Co from aqueous solution
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Background: Cashew nut shell is a by-product of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) production, which is abundant in many developing countries. Cashew nut shell liquor (CNSL) contains a functional chemical, cardanol, which can be converted into a hydroxyoxime. The hydroxyoximes are expensive reagents for metal extraction.
Methods: CNSL-based oxime was synthesized and used to extract Ni, Co, and Mn from aqueous solutions. The extraction potential was compared against a commercial extractant (LIX 860N).
Results: All metals were successfully extracted with pH0.5 between 4 and 6. The loaded organic phase was subsequently stripped with an acidic solution. The extraction efficiency and pH0.5 of the CNSL-based extractant were similar to a commercial phenol-oxime extractant. The metals were stripped from the loaded organic phase with a recovery rate of 95% at a pH of 1.
Conclusions: Cashew-based cardanol can be used to economically produce an oxime in a simple process. The naturally-based oxime has the economic potential to sustainably recover valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
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