The persuasion process of sponsorship and nonsponsorship activation and the dual mediation model
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Reproduced with permission from the publisher.
The current study introduces the Dual Mediation Model (DMM) as a user perspective framework to explore the persuasive process of sponsorship and nonsponsorship activation across countries and brands. Data were collected from 1,850 respondents in Australia, the US, Malaysia, and China to examine consumer decision making for Adidas (i.e., sponsor) and Nike (i.e., nonsponsor) in the associations both brands have activated with the 2002-2014 FIFA World Cup (FWC). The majority of the hypotheses were supported, suggesting the DMM's ability to explain the impacts of sponsorship and nonsponsorship activation on cognitive, affective, and conative behavior across countries. Significant differences were also perceived in the attitude-purchase intention relationship between Australia and the other countries for Adidas, and between the US and the other three countries for Nike. Theoretically, the DMM presents researchers with a user perspective framework for the persuasion process in consumer decision making, which has been empirically tested and validated across four countries and two global brands. Managerially, findings reiterate to event organizers and brand managers that sponsorship activation requires activational communication, which should culminate in unique positioning and differentiation for sponsor brands.
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