Evaluation of the Relationship between Left Coronary Artery Bifurcation Angle and Coronary Artery Disease: A Systematic Review
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Recent studies have suggested a relationship between wide left coronary artery bifurcation (left anterior descending [LAD]-left circumflex [LCx]) angle and coronary artery disease (CAD). Current literature is multifaceted. Different studies have analysed this relationship using computational fluid dynamics, by considering CAD risk factors, and from simple causal-comparative and correlational perspectives. Hence, the purpose of this systematic review was to critically evaluate the current literature and determine whether there is sufficient evidence available to prove the relationship between LAD-LCx angle and CAD. Five electronic databases (ProQuest, Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, and Emcare) were used to locate relevant texts, which were then screened according to predefined eligibility criteria. Thirteen eligible articles were selected for review. Current evidence suggests individuals with a wide LAD-LCx angle experience altered haemodynamics at the bifurcation site compared to those with narrower angles, which likely facilitates a predisposition to developing CAD. However, further research is required to determine causality regarding relationships between LAD-LCx angle and CAD risk factors. Insufficient valid evidence exists to support associations between LAD-LCx angle and degree of coronary stenosis, and future haemodynamic analyses should explore more accurate coronary artery modelling, as well as CAD progression in already stenosed bifurcations.
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