State of Science: Why Does Rework Occur in Construction? What Are Its Consequences? And What Can be Done to Mitigate Its Occurrence?
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There has been a wealth of research that has examined the nature of rework in construction. Progress toward addressing the rework problem has been limited—it still plagues practice, adversely impacting a project's performance. Almost all rework studies have focused on determining its proximal or root causes and therefore have overlooked the conditions that result from its manifestation. In filling this void, this paper draws upon our previous empirical studies, amongst others, to provide a much-needed theoretical framing to understand better why rework occurs, what its consequences are, and how it can be mitigated during construction. The theoretical framing we derive from our review provides construction organizations and their projects with a realization that the journey to mitigating rework begins with creating an error-mastery culture comprising authentic leadership, psychological safety, an error-management orientation, and resilience. We suggest that, once an error-mastery culture is established within construction organizations and their projects, they will be better positioned to realize the benefits of the techniques, tools, and technologies espoused to address rework, such as the Last Planner® and building information modeling. We also provide directions for future research and identify implications for practice so that strides toward rework mitigation in construction can be made.
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