Metallogenesis of the Paleoproterozoic Piaba orogenic gold deposit, São Luís cratonic fragment, Brazil
|dc.identifier.citation||Klein, E.L. and Lucas, F.R. and Queiroz, J.D. and Freitas, S.C. and Renac, C. and Galarza, M.A. and Jourdan, F. et al. 2014. Metallogenesis of the Paleoproterozoic Piaba orogenic gold deposit, São Luís cratonic fragment, Brazil. Ore Geology Reviews. 65, Part 1: pp. 1-25.|
Piaba is an orogenic gold deposit (~ 3.5 Moz) of the São Luís cratonic fragment in north-northeastern Brazil. The deposit is epizonal–mesozonal and associated with the development of a subvertical strike–slip fault that cut across Rhyacian metavolcano-sedimentary rocks and granitoids. The metavolcano-sedimentary sequence comprises carbon-bearing schists, andesite/dacite, ultramafic rocks and felsic tuffs formed at 2240 ± 5 Ma to 2227 ± 33 Ma that were intruded at 2214 ± 3 Ma by fine-grained, subvolcanic granophyric granodiorite. Whole-rock geochemistry indicates that the hosting metavolcano-sedimentary sequence formed in a subduction-related (arc, back-arc?) setting, which has previously been interpreted as the early-arc stage of an accretionary orogen (2240–2214 Ma) that was followed by voluminous subduction-related calc-alkaline arc magmatism (2168–2145 Ma) and by a collisional phase (2100 ± 15 Ma) that produced several bodies of peraluminous granites. The hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks produced early, distal carbonization and hematitization and proximal, ore-related chlorite–sericite–carbonate–sulfide alteration.Two styles of mineralization, occurring in association, are present: (1) a network of thin quartz ± sulfide veinlets and subordinate narrow breccia veins with refractory- to free-milling gold dissemination in hydrothermally-altered host rocks, and (2) subordinate low-sulfide Au-quartz veins with free-milling gold. Fluid inclusions and stable isotopes characterize the mineralizing solution as a relatively reduced (log fO2 = − 30 to − 35), neutral to slightly alkaline (pH 5 to 6.2), low-salinity (average 5% NaCl), aqueous-carbonic (XCO2 = 5 to 59 mol%, XH2O = 40 to 93 mol%, XN2 and XCH4 < 1 mol%) metamorphic fluid (δ18OH2O = + 5.5 to + 8.9‰, δDH2O = − 8 to − 69‰), and suggest that gold mineralization occurred at 250° to 330 °C and 1.25 to 2.8 kbar in response to phase separation and fluid–rock interactions that produced sulfidation and minor carbonatization. Sulfur (δ34S = − 2.7 to − 3.8‰) is from an undetermined source, probably magmatic (oxidized) or sedimentary. Lead isotope compositions of gold, ore-related pyrite and K-feldspar from regional rocks suggest that collision-related granitoids of ca. 2100 ± 15 Ma are the most likely sources for Pb in the ore, although mantle and lower crustal sources are also observed. 40Ar/39Ar in hydrothermal sericite yielded a plateau age of 1980 ± 13 Ma, which is similar to the Pb–Pb model age of gold of 1959 Ma. These are considered the minimum age for gold mineralization, whereas the maximum age of 2009 ± 11 Ma is given by a small gold-hosting intrusion in the same region.
|dc.publisher||Elsevier Science BV|
|dc.title||Metallogenesis of the Paleoproterozoic Piaba orogenic gold deposit, São Luís cratonic fragment, Brazil|
|dcterms.source.title||Ore Geology Reviews|
|curtin.department||Department of Applied Geology|
|curtin.accessStatus||Fulltext not available|