Relationships between Outcome Expectancies and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury: Moderating Roles of Emotion Regulation Difficulties and Self-Efficacy to Resist Self-Injury
MetadataShow full item record
Funding and Sponsorship
This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Archives of Suicide Research on 12 Oct 2021, available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/13811118.2021.1983492.
Background: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the deliberate damage of one’s own body tissue in the absence of suicidal intent. Research suggests that individuals engage in NSSI as a means of regulating their emotions and that NSSI is associated with emotion regulation difficulties. There is also evidence supporting the role of outcome expectancies and self-efficacy to resist NSSI. However, it is unclear how these factors work together to explain NSSI. Objective: To explore whether the relationships between five NSSI-specific outcome expectancies and NSSI history are moderated by emotion regulation difficulties and self-efficacy to resist NSSI. Method: 1002 participants (Mage = 20.51, 72.5% female, 39.7% lifetime history of NSSI) completed an online survey including measures of NSSI history, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy to resist NSSI, and emotion regulation difficulties. Results: Emotion regulation difficulties were associated with NSSI, as was expecting NSSI to regulate affect. Conversely, expectations of communication and/or pain, as well as self-efficacy to resist NSSI were negatively associated with NSSI. Expectancies also interacted with both difficulties in emotion regulation and self-efficacy to resist NSSI in predicting self-injury. For example, the association between expectations of affect regulation and self-injury was weaker when associated with greater self-efficacy to resist NSSI. Conclusion: These findings provide support for considering NSSI-specific cognitions in concert with emotion regulation when understanding NSSI.Highlights Outcome expectancies can differentiate people based on NSSI history. Emotion regulation difficulties and self-efficacy to resist NSSI moderate the relationships between outcome expectancies and NSSI history. Emotion regulation difficulties and low self-efficacy to resist NSSI work together to predict NSSI history.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
A comparison of the associations between alexithymia and both non-suicidal self-injury and risky drinking: The roles of explicit outcome expectancies and refusal self-efficacyGreene, D.; Hasking, Penelope ; Boyes, Mark (2021)Both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and risky drinking are positively associated with alexithymia, a personality trait characterized by difficulties appraising feelings and an externally orientated thinking style. Although ...
Duncan-Plummer, Thomas ; Hasking, Penelope ; Tonta, Kate; Boyes, Mark (2023)Background: Contemporary models of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) suggest that emotional vulnerabilities, negative self-schemas, and beliefs about NSSI work together to differentiate students who self-injure from those ...
Gray, Nicole ; Uren, Hannah; Pemberton, E.; Boyes, Mark (2023)Background: We aimed to identify profiles of ambivalence among individuals with a history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and tested whether profiles differed across various theoretically informed constructs: NSSI-related ...