Dietary strategies to maintain adequacy of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations
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The importance of vitamin D intake to nutritional status is a corollary of sunshine deficit. There is a dose-response of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations to total vitamin D intake in persons who do not receive UVB exposure. This updated summary of vitamin D intakes and sources in adults and children focuses on data from North America and Europe. We explore the evidence that intakes of vitamin D are inadequate with reference to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Dietary Reference Intakes. Due to mandatory fortification, usual vitamin D intakes are higher in the US and Canada than most of Europe, with the exception of the Nordic countries. Intakes of vitamin D in national surveys are typically below 5 μ g/d in most European countries and vary according to country-specific fortification practices, sex and age. The main source of variation is the contribution from nutritional supplements. Usual vitamin D intake estimates need to capture data on the contributions from fortified and supplemental sources as well as the base diet. The current dietary supply of vitamin D makes it unfeasible for most adults to meet the IOM Estimated Average Requirement of 10 μ g/d. While supplements are an effective method for individuals to increase their intake, food fortification represents the best opportunity to increase the vitamin D supply to the population. Well-designed sustainable fortification strategies, which use a range of foods to accommodate diversity, have potential to increase vitamin D intakes across the population distribution and minimize the prevalence of low 25(OH)D concentrations.
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Small increments in vitamin D intake by Irish adults over a decade show that strategic initiatives to fortify the food supply are neededBlack, Lucinda; Walton, J.; Flynn, A.; Cashman, K.; Kiely, M. (2015)© 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Background: Food fortification could be an effective method of increasing vitamin D intakes and preventing deficiency with minimal risk of excessive dosing. Objective: Secular trends ...
Black, Lucinda; Seamans, K.; Cashman, K.; Kiely, M. (2012)Food fortification is a potentially effective public health strategy to increase vitamin D intakes and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. We updated a previous systematic review to evaluate current ...
Baseline investigations of folate status in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal West Australians prior to the introduction of mandatory fortificationMaxwell, S.; Brameld, Kate; Bower, C.; D'antoine, H.; Hickling, S.; Marley, J.; O'Leary, Peter (2013)Objective: In September 2009, Australia implemented mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for bread-making to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Our study aimed to establish baseline folate status ...