Effects of oral supplementation with glutamine and alanyl-glutamine on glutamine, glutamate, and glutathione status in trained rats and subjected to long-duration exercise
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Objective: We investigated the effect of supplementation with the dipeptide L-alanyl-L-glutamine (DIP) and a solution containing L-glutamine and L-alanine, both in the free form, on the plasma and tissue concentrations of glutamine, glutamate, and glutathione (GSH) in rats subjected to long-duration exercise. Methods: Rats were subjected to sessions of swim training. Twenty-one days before sacrifice, the animals were supplemented with DIP (1.5 g/kg, n = 6), a solution of free L-glutamine (1 g/kg) and free L-alanine (0.61 g/kg; GLN + ALA, n = 6), or water (CON, n = 6). Animals were sacrificed before (TR, n = 6) or after (LD, n = 6) long-duration exercise. Plasma concentrations of glutamine, glutamate, glucose, and ammonia and liver and muscle concentrations of glutamine, glutamate, and reduced and oxidized (GSSG) GSH were measured. Results: Higher concentrations of plasma glutamine were found in the DIP-TR and GLN + ALA-TR groups. The CON-LD group showed hyperammonemia, whereas the DIP-LD and GLN + ALA-LD groups exhibited lower concentrations of ammonia. Higher concentrations of glutamine, glutamate, and GSH/GSSG in the soleus muscle and GSH and GSH/GSSG in the liver were observed in the DIP-TR and GLN + ALA-TR groups. The DIP-LD and GLN + ALA-LD groups exhibited higher concentrations of GSH and GSH/GSSG in the soleus muscle and liver compared with the CON-LD group. Conclusion: Chronic oral administration of DIP and free GLN + ALA before long-duration exercise represents an effective source of glutamine and glutamate, which may increase muscle and liver stores of GSH and improve the redox state of the cell.
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