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dc.contributor.authorWatkins, Rochelle
dc.contributor.authorElliott, E.
dc.contributor.authorWilkins, A.
dc.contributor.authorLatimer, J.
dc.contributor.authorHalliday, J.
dc.contributor.authorFitzpatrick, J.
dc.contributor.authorMutch, R.
dc.contributor.authorO'Leary, Colleen marie
dc.contributor.authorBurns, L.
dc.contributor.authorMcKenzie, A.
dc.contributor.authorJones, H.
dc.contributor.authorPayne, J.
dc.contributor.authorD'antoine, Heather
dc.contributor.authorMiers, S.
dc.contributor.authorRussell, E.
dc.contributor.authorHayes, L.
dc.contributor.authorCarter, M.
dc.contributor.authorBower, C.
dc.identifier.citationWatkins, R. and Elliott, E. and Wilkins, A. and Latimer, J. and Halliday, J. and Fitzpatrick, J. and Mutch, R. et al. 2014. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: development of concensus referral criteria for specialist diagnostic assessment in Australia. BMC Pediatrics. 14: Article ID 178.

Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is known to be under-recognised in Australia. The use of standard methods to identify when to refer individuals who may have FASD for specialist assessment could help improve the identification of this disorder. The purpose of this study was to develop referral criteria for use in Australia. Method: An online survey about FASD screening and diagnosis in Australia, which included 23 statements describing criteria for referral for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and FASD based on published recommendations for referral in North America, was sent to 139 health professionals who had expertise or involvement in FASD screening or diagnosis. Survey findings and published criteria for referral were subsequently reviewed by a panel of 14 investigators at a consensus development workshop where criteria for referral were developed.Results: Among the 139 health professionals who were sent the survey, 103 (74%) responded, and 90 (65%) responded to the statements on criteria for referral. Over 80% of respondents agreed that referral for specialist evaluation should occur when there is evidence of significant prenatal alcohol exposure, defined as 7 or more standard drinks per week and at least 3 standard drinks on any one day, and more than 70% agreed with 13 of the16 statements that described criteria for referral other than prenatal alcohol exposure. Workshop participants recommended five independent criteria for referral: confirmed significant prenatal alcohol exposure; microcephaly and confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure; 2 or more significant central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities and confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure; 3 characteristic FAS facial anomalies; and 1 characteristic FAS facial anomaly, growth deficit and 1 or more CNS abnormalities .Conclusion: Referral criteria recommended for use in Australia are similar to those recommended in North America. There is a need to develop resources to raise awareness of these criteria among health professionals and evaluate their feasibility, acceptability and capacity to improve the identification of FASD in Australia.

dc.publisherBioMed Central
dc.subjectFetal alcohol spectrum disorder
dc.titleFetal alcohol spectrum disorder: development of concensus referral criteria for specialist diagnostic assessment in Australia
dc.typeJournal Article
dcterms.source.titleBMC Pediatrics

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

curtin.departmentCentre for Population Health
curtin.accessStatusOpen access

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