A study on the mixing proportion in groundwater samples by using Piper diagram and Phreeqc model
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Piper (1944) diagram has been the basis for several important interpretations of the hydrogeochemical data. As seen in this diagram, most natural waters contain relatively few dissolved constituents, with cations (metals or bases) and anions (acid radicles) in chemical equilibrium with one another. Apart from the facies representation, the composition of the mixed sample can be identified in terms of the composition of the parental solution. To bring out this advantage of the Piper diagram, a study was conducted in the Kalpakkam region of Tamilnadu, South India. By taking the geology and water table into consideration, two sample locations were selected as parent solution and third one as the mixture sample. All three samples were analyzed for calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), sulphate (SO4) and phosphate (PO4) by Ion Chromatograph (Metrohm IC 861). HCO3 was determined by volumetric titration. The Piper diagram shows that parent solutions clustered towards Na-Mg-Ca-HCO3-Cl and Na-HCO3 facies, and the mixing sample belongs to Na-Mg-HCO3 facies. Phreeqc interactive (Ver 2.8) along with the original composition of the mixture sample was used to correlate the mixing proportion identified by the Piper diagram.
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