Maintaining real-time precise point positioning during outages of orbit and clock corrections
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The final publication is available at Springer via http://doi.org/10.1007/s10291-016-0583-4
The precise point positioning (PPP) is a popular positioning technique that is dependent on the use of precise orbits and clock corrections. One serious problem for real-time PPP applications such as natural hazard early warning systems and hydrographic surveying is when a sudden communication break takes place resulting in a discontinuity in receiving these orbit and clock corrections for a period that may extend from a few minutes to hours. A method is presented to maintain real-time PPP with 3D accuracy less than a decimeter when such a break takes place. We focus on the open-access International GNSS Service (IGS) real-time service (RTS) products and propose predicting the precise orbit and clock corrections as time series. For a short corrections outage of a few minutes, we predict the IGS-RTS orbits using a high-order polynomial, and for longer outages up to 3 h, the most recent IGS ultra-rapid orbits are used. The IGS-RTS clock corrections are predicted using a second-order polynomial and sinusoidal terms. The model parameters are estimated sequentially using a sliding time window such that they are available when needed. The prediction model of the clock correction is built based on the analysis of their properties, including their temporal behavior and stability. Evaluation of the proposed method in static and kinematic testing shows that positioning precision of less than 10 cm can be maintained for up to 2 h after the break. When PPP re-initialization is needed during the break, the solution convergence time increases; however, positioning precision remains less than a decimeter after convergence.
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