Compositional and Material Properties of Rat Bone after Bisphosphonate and/or Strontium Ranelate Drug Treatment
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PURPOSE: We investigated elemental strontium and/or bisphosphonate drug incorporation upon the compositional and biomechanical properties of vertebral bone, in a rat model of Osteoporosis secondary to ovariectomy. METHODS: Six month old female rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and divided into untreated OVXVehicle, OVX-RIS (Risedronate bisphosphonate [BP] treated), OVX-SrR (Strontium Ranelate [Protos®] treated), combination OVX-RIS+SrR, and sham-operated controls. After 16 weeks of treatment, rats were euthanized and lumbar vertebra were dissected. Micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT), Electron Probe Micro-Analysis (EPMA), mechanical testing in compression and nano-indentation testing were then undertaken to evaluate bone morphometry, elemental composition, material properties and strength. Results. Bone Volume was significantly reduced in the OVX-Vehicle (133±10mm3) compared with OVX-RIS (169±22mm3), OVXSrR (145±2mm3), and OVX-RIS+SrR (172±8mm3). EPMA mapped elemental Sr deposition to the periosteal surface of cortical bone (50-100 µm thick), endosteal trabecular surfaces (20 µm thick), as well as to both vertebral growth plates. The atomic ratios of (Ca+Sr)/P were significantly reduced with SrR treatment (2.4%- 6.6%), indicating Sr incorporation into bone mineral. No significant differences were measured in vertebral bone reduced modulus by nano-indentation. Conversely, all BP-dosed groups had significantly increased structural bone strength. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, we conclude that BP drugs dominate the conservation of trabecular geometry and structural strength in OP rats, whereas Sr drugs likely influence bone volume and material composition locally.
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