High Penetration of Rooftop Photovoltaic Cells in Low Voltage Distribution Networks: Voltage Imbalance and Improvement
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Installation of domestic rooftop photovoltaic cells (PVs) is increasing due to feed–in tariff and motivation driven by environmental concerns. Even though the increase in the PV installation is gradual, their locations and ratings are often random. Therefore, such single–phase bi–directional power flow caused by the residential customers can have adverse effect on the voltage imbalance of a three–phase distribution network. In this chapter, a voltage imbalance sensitivity analysis and stochastic evaluation are carried out based on the ratings and locations of single–phase grid–connected rooftop PVs in a residential low voltage distribution network. The stochastic evaluation, based on Monte Carlo method, predicts a failure index of non–standard voltage imbalance in the network in presence of PVs. Later, the application of series and parallel custom power devices are investigated to improve voltage imbalance problem in these feeders. In this regard, first, the effectiveness of these two custom power devices is demonstrated vis–à–vis the voltage imbalance reduction in feeders containing rooftop PVs. Their effectiveness is investigated from the installation location and rating points of view. Later, a Monte Carlo based stochastic analysis is utilized to investigate their efficacy for different uncertainties of load and PV rating and location in the network. This is followed by demonstrating the dynamic feasibility and stability issues of applying these devices in the network.
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Shahnia, Farhad; Majumder, R.; Ghosh, A.; Ledwich, G.; Zare, F. (2011)The installation of domestic rooftop photovoltaic cells (PVs) are on the rise due to feed-in tariff and changes driven by environmental concerns. Even though the increase in the PV installation is gradual, their locations ...
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