Observing the coach-created motivational environment across training and competition in youth sport
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Adopting an integrated achievement goal (Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.) and self-determination theory (Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01) perspective as proffered by Duda, J. L. (2013). (The conceptual and empirical foundations of empowering coachingTM: Setting the stage for the PAPA project. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 311–318. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2013.839414), the aim of the current study was to observe empowering and disempowering features of the multidimensional motivational coaching environment in training and competition in youth sport. Seventeen grass-roots soccer coaches were observed and rated in training and competitive settings using the multidimensional motivational climate observation system (MMCOS; Smith, N., Tessier, D., Tzioumakis, Y., Quested, E., Appleton, P., Sarrazin, P., … Duda, J. L. (2015). Development and validation of the multidimensional motivational climate observation system (MMCOS). Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 37, 4–22. doi:10.1123/jsep.2014-0059). In line with our hypotheses, coaches created different motivational environments in the two contexts. More specifically, coaches were observed to create a less empowering and more disempowering environment in competition compared to in training. The observed differences were underpinned by distinctive motivational strategies used by coaches in the two contexts. Findings have implications for the assessment of the coach-created motivational environment and the promotion of quality motivation for young athletes taking part in grass-roots-level sport.
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The relationship between observed and perceived assessments of the coach-created motivational environment and links to athlete motivationSmith, N.; Tessier, D.; Tzioumakis, Y.; Fabra, P.; Quested, Eleanor; Appleton, P.; Sarrazin, P.; Papaioannou, A.; Balaguer, I.; Duda, J. (2016)Objectives: The majority of research examining the relationship between the coach-created motivational and athlete motivation has relied on self-report measures. Grounded in Duda's (2013) theoretically integrated model, ...
Comparing the objective motivational climate created by grassroots soccer coaches in England, Greece and FranceTessier, D.; Smith, N.; Tzioumakis, Y.; Quested, Eleanor; Sarrazin, P.; Papaioannou, A.; Digelidis, N.; Duda, J. (2013)The coach-created motivational climate is a key determinant of athletes' welfare and degree of optimal functioning when taking part in sport. The purpose of this study, grounded in a self-determination theory and achievement ...
A review of observational instruments to assess the motivational environment in sport and physical education settingsSmith, N.; Quested, Eleanor; Appleton, P.; Duda, J. (2016)To date, the majority of research grounded in Achievement Goal frameworks (AGT) and Self-determination Theory (SDT), which has examined the coach-created motivational environment and its correlates, has relied exclusively ...