Disinfection by-products from halogenation of aqueous solutions of terpenoids
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We report the formation of trihalomethanes and other disinfection by-products from four polyfunctional terpenoids during simulated chlorination of natural waters. Complex suites of products were identified by closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA)/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) from halogenation of b-carotene and retinol. b-Ionone appeared to be a key intermediate in the halogenation of b-carotene and retinol, reacting further under the reaction conditions to produce trans-b-ionone-5,6-epoxide and b-cyclocitral. Halogenation of the four terpenoids also produced trihalomethanes (THMs), most likely through haloform reaction on methyl ketone groups within many of the intermediates. Since halogenation of retinol produced a significant quantity of THMs at a slow reaction rate, retinol-based structures may possibly contribute to the slow reacting phase of THM formation in natural waters. Two polyhydroxyphenol model compounds were halogenated for comparison. The only products identified by CLSA/GC-MS from halogenation of 40,5,7- trihydroxyflavanone and ellagic acid were THMs. 40,5,7-Trihydroxyflavanone rapidly produced THMs, with an extremely high molar yield (94%) at pH 7. Terpenoids of the b-ionone and retinol type should be considered to be significant THM precursors, while 40,5,7-trihydroxyflavanone has been shown to be an extremely significant THM precursor, potentially present within natural organic matter in water treatment processes and distribution systems
The link to the journal’s home page is: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/309/description#description . Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
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