Growth temperature and genotype both play important roles in sorghum grain phenolic composition.
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Polyphenols in sorghum grains are a source of dietary antioxidants. Polyphenols in six diverse sorghum genotypes grown under two day/night temperature regimes of optimal temperature (OT, 32/21 °C and high temperature (HT, 38/21 °C) were investigated. A total of 23 phenolic compounds were positively or tentatively identified by HPLC-DAD-ESIMS. Compared with other pigmented types, the phenolic profile of white sorghum PI563516 was simpler, since fewer polyphenols were detected. Brown sorghum IS 8525 had the highest levels of caffeic and ferulic acid, but apigenin and luteolin were not detected. Free luteolinidin and apigeninidin levels were lower under HT than OT across all genotypes (p ≤ 0.05), suggesting HT could have inhibited 3-deoxyanthocyanidins formation. These results provide new information on the effects of HT on specific polyphenols in various Australian sorghum genotypes, which might be used as a guide to grow high antioxidant sorghum grains under projected high temperature in the future.
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