Karrikins discovered in smoke trigger arabidopsis seed germination by a mechanism requiring gibberellic acid synthesis and light
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Discovery of the primary seed germination stimulant in smoke, 3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one (KAR1), has resulted in identification of a family of structurally related plant growth regulators, karrikins. KAR1 acts as a key germination trigger for many species from fire-prone, Mediterranean climates, but a molecular mechanism for this response remains unknown. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), an ephemeral of the temperate northern hemisphere that has never, to our knowledge, been reported to be responsive to fire or smoke, rapidly and sensitively perceives karrikins. Thus, these signaling molecules may have greater significance among angiosperms than previously realized. Karrikins can trigger germination of primary dormant Arabidopsis seeds far more effectively than known phytohormones or the structurally related strigolactone GR-24. Natural variation and depth of seed dormancy affect the degree of KAR 1 stimulation. Analysis of phytohormone mutant germination reveals suppression of KAR1 responses by abscisic acid and a requirement for gibberellin (GA) synthesis. The reduced germination of sleepy1 mutants is partially recovered by KAR1, which suggests that germination enhancement by karrikin is only partly DELLA dependent. While KAR1 has little effect on sensitivity to exogenous GA, it enhances expression of the GA biosynthetic genes GA3ox1 and GA3ox2 during seed imbibition. Neither abscisic acid nor GA levels in seed are appreciably affected by KAR1 treatment prior to radicle emergence, despite marked differences in germination outcome. KAR1 stimulation of Arabidopsis germination is light-dependent and reversible by far-red exposure, although limited induction of GA3ox1 still occurs in the dark. The observed requirements for light and GA biosynthesis provide the first insights into the karrikin mode of action. © 2008 American Society of Plant Biologists.
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Karrikins enhance light responses during germination and seedling development in Arabidopsis thalianaNelson, D.; Flematti, G.; Riseborough, J.; Ghisalberti, E.; Dixon, Kingsley; Smitha, S. (2010)Karrikins are a class of seed germination stimulants identified in smoke from wildfires. Microarray analysis of imbibed Arabidopsis thaliana seeds was performed to identify transcriptional responses to KAR1 before ...
Chiwocha, S.; Dixon, Kingsley; Flematti, G.; Ghisalberti, E.; Merritt, D.; Nelson, D.; Riseborough, J.; Smith, S.; Stevens, J. (2009)Karrikins are a chemically defined family of plant growth regulators discovered in smoke from burning plant material. Karrikins are potent in breaking dormancy of seeds of many species adapted to environments that regularly ...
Nelson, D.; Scaffidi, A.; Dun, E.; Waters, M.; Flematti, G.; Dixon, Kingsley; Beveridge, C.; Ghisalberti, E.; Smith, S. (2011)Smoke is an important abiotic cue for plant regeneration in postfire landscapes. Karrikins are a class of compounds discovered in smoke that promote seed germination and influence early development of many plants by an ...