Glutamine and skeletal muscle
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Of the group of 20 amino acids which covalently bonded in linear sequences to form all proteins from the oldest bacteria to the most complex forms of life, glutamine deserves special attention. For many mammals, including human beings, glutamine, especially intermediate metabolism of amino acids of muscle cells, is the most abundant free amino acid in the body and is important in many cell types, playing an important role in a number of essential functions. In high catabolism conditions, such as diseases and exhausting exercise, the synthesis of glutamine does not supply the needs demanded by the organism. In this process, one of the most important sites of glutamine synthesis is the skeletal muscle, not for its synthesis capacity per se, but because it represents at least 40 % of total bodily mass.
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L-glutamine and L-alanine supplementation increase glutamine-glutathione axis and muscle HSP-27 in rats trained using a progressive high-intensity resistance exerciseLeite, J.; Raizel, R.; Hypólito, T.; Dos Santos Rosa, T.; Cruzat, Vinicius; Tirapegui, J. (2016)In this study we investigated the chronic effects of oral L-glutamine and L-alanine supplementation, either in their free or dipeptide form, on glutamine-glutathione (GLN-GSH) axis and cytoprotection mediated by HSP-27 ...
Effects of supplementation with free glutamine and the dipeptide alanyl-glutamine on parameters of muscle damage and inflammation in rats submitted to prolonged exerciseCruzat, Vinicius; Rogero, M.; Tirapegui, J. (2010)In this study, we investigated the effect of the supplementation with the dipeptide L-alanyl-L-glutamine (DIP) and a solution containing L-glutamine and L-alanine on plasma levels markers of muscle damage and levels of ...
L-glutamine supplementations enhance liver glutamine-glutathione axis and heat shock factor-1 expression in endurance-exercise trained ratsPetry, E.; Cruzat, Vinicius; Heck, T.; De Bittencourt, P.; Tirapegui, J. (2015)Liver L-glutamine is an important vehicle for the transport of ammonia and intermediary metabolism of amino acids between tissues, particularly under catabolic situations, such as high-intensity exercise. Hence, the aim ...