Phase I and biomarker study of OPB-51602, a novel signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 inhibitor, in patients with refractory solid malignancies
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© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.Background: The aim of this study was to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of OPB-51602, an oral, direct signal transduction activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitor, in patients with refractory solid tumors. Patients and methods: Three cohorts were studied: cohort A, a sequential dose escalation of OPB-51602 administered intermittently (days 1-14 every 21 days); cohort B, an expansion cohort evaluating the dose lower than the MTD; cohort C, evaluating continuous daily dosing. Results: Fifty-one patients were studied at 2, 4, and 5 mg per day dosing. The MTD was 5 mg; first-cycle dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were grade 3 hyponatremia in one patient, and grade 3 dehydration in another. Intermittent dosing of both 2 and 4 mg doses were tolerable, and the recommended phase II dose was 4 mg. Cohort B investigated 4 mg intermittently, whereas cohort C investigated 4 mg continuously. Common toxicities included fatigue, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and early-onset peripheral neuropathy. Drug-induced pneumonitis occurred in two patients in cohort C. Continuous dosing was associated with a higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy and a lower mean relative dose intensity, compared with intermittent dosing. Steady-state pharmacokinetics was characterized by high oral clearance, mean elimination half-life ranging from 44 to 61 h, and a large terminal-phase volume of distribution. An active metabolite, OPB-51822, accumulated to a greater extent than OPB-51602. Flow cytometry of peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated pSTAT3 (Tyr<sup>705</sup>) inhibition following exposure. Two patients achieved partial responses at 5 mg intermittently and 4 mg continuously; both had epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with prior EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor exposure. Conclusion: OPB-51602 demonstrates promising antitumor activity, particularly in NSCLC. Its long half-life and poorer tolerability of continuous dosing, compared with intermittent dosing, suggest that less frequent dosing should be explored.
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