LOCALIZER: Subcellular localization prediction of both plant and effector proteins in the plant cell
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Pathogens secrete effector proteins and many operate inside plant cells to enable infection. Some effectors have been found to enter subcellular compartments by mimicking host targeting sequences. Although many computational methods exist to predict plant protein subcellular localization, they perform poorly for effectors. We introduce LOCALIZER for predicting plant and effector protein localization to chloroplasts, mitochondria, and nuclei. LOCALIZER shows greater prediction accuracy for chloroplast and mitochondrial targeting compared to other methods for 652 plant proteins. For 107 eukaryotic effectors, LOCALIZER outperforms other methods and predicts a previously unrecognized chloroplast transit peptide for the ToxA effector, which we show translocates into tobacco chloroplasts. Secretome-wide predictions and confocal microscopy reveal that rust fungi might have evolved multiple effectors that target chloroplasts or nuclei. LOCALIZER is the first method for predicting effector localisation in plants and is a valuable tool for prioritizing effector candidates for functional investigations. © The Author(s) 2017.
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Sperschneider, J.; Dodds, P.; Singh, Karam; Taylor, J. (2017)© 2017 New Phytologist Trust. The plant apoplast is integral to intercellular signalling, transport and plant-pathogen interactions. Plant pathogens deliver effectors both into the apoplast and inside host cells, but no ...
Evaluation of secretion prediction highlights differing approaches needed for oomycete and fungal effectorsSperschneider, J.; Williams, A.; Hane, James; Singh, K.; Taylor, J. (2015)© 2015 Sperschneider, Williams, Hane, Singh and Taylor. The steadily increasing number of sequenced fungal and oomycete genomes has enabled detailed studies of how these eukaryotic microbes infect plants and cause devastating ...
Sperschneider, J.; Dodds, P.; Gardiner, D.; Singh, Karam; Taylor, J. (2018)© 2018 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd Plant-pathogenic fungi secrete effector proteins to facilitate infection. We describe extensive improvements to EffectorP, the first machine learning classifier for fungal effector ...