Effect of fracture fill on frequency-dependent anisotropy of fractured porous rocks
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© 2017 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.In fractured reservoirs, seismic wave velocity and amplitude depend on frequency and incidence angle. Frequency dependence is believed to be principally caused by the wave-induced flow of pore fluid at the mesoscopic scale. In recent years, two particular phenomena, i.e., patchy saturation and flow between fractures and pores, have been identified as significant mechanisms of wave-induced flow. However, these two phenomena are studied separately. Recently, a unified model has been proposed for a porous rock with a set of aligned fractures, with pores and fractures filled with two different fluids. Existing models treat waves propagating perpendicular to the fractures. In this paper, we extend the model to all propagation angles by assuming that the flow direction is perpendicular to the layering plane and is independent of the loading direction. We first consider the limiting cases through poroelastic Backus averaging, and then we obtain the five complex and frequency-dependent stiffness values of the equivalent transversely isotropic medium as a function of the frequency. The numerical results show that, when the bulk modulus of the fracture-filling fluid is relatively large, the dispersion and attenuation of P-waves are mainly caused by fractures, and the values decrease as angles increase, almost vanishing when the incidence angle is 90° (propagation parallel to the fracture plane). While the bulk modulus of fluid in fractures is much smaller than that of matrix pores, the attenuation due to the "partial saturation" mechanism makes the fluid flow from pores into fractures, which is almost independent of the incidence angle.
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