The Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Expectancy Questionnaire: Factor structure and initial validation
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Background: Models of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) typically focus on the role of emotion regulation in NSSI, yet recent work supports a role for NSSI-related cognitions. NSSI outcome expectancies may offer important clues about who is at risk of NSSI, who is able to cease the behaviour, and who is at risk of relapse. Yet, so far, there is no reliable and valid means of assessing these cognitions. We developed, and reported on initial validation, of an NSSI Expectancy Questionnaire. Methods: A total of 49 statements reflecting possible outcomes of NSSI were administered to 496 undergraduate students. Results: Principal axis factoring revealed five factors (Affect Regulation, Negative Social Outcomes, Communication, Pain, Negative Self-Beliefs), which differentiated people with a history of NSSI from people with no NSSI history. Correlations with measures of self-efficacy, emotion regulation, and NSSI functions offer convergent and discriminant validity. Conclusions: The questionnaire appears to be a reliable and valid measure of NSSI outcome expectancies that could be a useful addition to the measurement toolkit when investigating cognitive variables related to NSSI.
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Dawkins, J.; Hasking, Penelope; Boyes, Mark; Greene, D.; Passchier, C. (2018)© 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The recently proposed cognitive-emotional model of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) draws on emotion regulation models and social cognitive theory to understand the onset, maintenance, and ...
Differentiating Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Risky Drinking: a Role for Outcome Expectancies and Self-Efficacy BeliefsHasking, Penelope (2017)© 2017 Society for Prevention ResearchSocial cognitive theory articulates a role for two key thought processes in governing volitional behaviour: outcome expectancies and self-efficacy expectancies. These cognitions are ...
Hasking, Penelope; Rose, A. (2016)Researchers have established a relationship between exposure to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and increased probability of engaging in the behavior, but few have endeavored to explain the mechanisms underlying the ...