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dc.contributor.authorLinge, Kathryn
dc.contributor.authorKristiana, I.
dc.contributor.authorLiew, D.
dc.contributor.authorNottle, C.
dc.contributor.authorHeitz, A.
dc.contributor.authorJoll, C.
dc.identifier.citationLinge, K. and Kristiana, I. and Liew, D. and Nottle, C. and Heitz, A. and Joll, C. 2017. Formation of n-nitrosamines in drinking water sources: Case studies from Western Australia. American Water Works Association Journal. 109 (6): pp. E184-E196.

This study investigated the formation of eight N-nitrosamines after laboratory chlorination and chloramination of Western Australian source waters (from protected catchments), which experience periodic cyanobacterial blooms. All measured N-nitrosamines, except N-nitrosodipropylamine, were detected at least once, and total N-nitrosamine formation was higher after chloramination than after chlorination. While previous studies have shown that some cyanobacteria can be related to the formation of N-nitrosamines, formation of N-nitrosamines in the waters tested did not correlate with total cyanobacteria count. Estimates of toxicity, using published 50% lifetime excess cancer risk values, indicated that N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was the highest contributor to the total measured N-nitrosamine toxicity, suggesting that other measuredN-nitrosamines will only influence toxicity when they arepresent at significantly higher concentrations than NDMA.When assessing the overall health impact of disinfectionby-products, it is important to also consider the formationof disinfection by-products other than N-nitrosamines,which may be present at higher concentrations and thus maypresent higher toxicity.

dc.publisherAmerican Water Works Association
dc.titleFormation of n-nitrosamines in drinking water sources: Case studies from Western Australia
dc.typeJournal Article
dcterms.source.titleAmerican Water Works Association Journal
curtin.departmentDepartment of Chemistry
curtin.accessStatusFulltext not available

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