Focused Ion beam implantation of diamond
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The interaction between diamond and a 30 kV Ga+ focused ion beam, has been studied. Electron backscattered diffraction identified the critical dose for amorphisation of the diamond surface at 2 × 10 14 Ga+/cm2. Scanning transmission electron microscopy identified a 35 nm amorphous carbon layer which, at higher doses, can swell up to 31% its original volume and accommodate a significant quantity of gallium. Electron energy loss and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy further characterised this layer and identified both excess hydrogen and oxygen contained within a stable amorphous carbon structure. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.