Halogen-specific total organic halogen analysis: Assessment by recovery of total bromine
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Determination of halogen-specific total organic halogen (TOX) is vital for studies of disinfection of waters containing bromide, since total organic bromine (TOBr) is likely to be more problematic than total organic chlorine. Here, we present further halogen-specific TOX method optimisation and validation, focusing on measurement of TOBr. The optimised halogen-specific TOX method was validated based on the recovery of model compounds covering different classes of disinfection by-products (haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, halophenols and halogenated benzenes) and the recovery of total bromine (mass balance of TOBr and bromide concentrations) during disinfection of waters containing dissolved organic matter and bromide. The validation of a halogen-specific TOX method based on the mass balance of total bromine has not previously been reported. Very good recoveries of organic halogen from all model compounds were obtained, indicating high or complete conversion of all organic halogen in the model compound solution through to halide in the absorber solution for ion chromatography analysis. The method was also successfully applied to monitor conversion of bromide to TOBr in a groundwater treatment plant. An excellent recovery (101%) of total bromine was observed from the raw water to the post-chlorination stage. Excellent recoveries of total bromine (92%–95%) were also obtained from chlorination of a synthetic water containing dissolved organic matter and bromide, demonstrating the validity of the halogen-specific TOX method for TOBr measurement. The halogen-specific TOX method is an important tool to monitor and better understand the formation of halogenated organic compounds, in particular brominated organic compounds, in drinking water systems.
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Kristiana, Ina; McDonald, S.; Tan, J.; Joll, C.; Heitz, A. (2015)A method was optimised and evaluated for the analysis of total organic halogen (TOX) in drinking water samples. It involved adsorption of organic halogen onto activated carbon, followed by combustion of the activated ...
The formation of halogen-specific TOX from chlorination and chloramination of natural organic matter isolatesKristiana, Ina; Gallard, H.; Joll, Cynthia; Croue, J. (2009)The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPS) is a public health concern. An important way to evaluate the presence of DBPs is in terms of the total organic halogen (TOX), which can be further specified into total ...
Impact of bromide on halogen incorporation into organic moieties in chlorinated drinking water treatment and distribution systems.Tan, J.; Allard, Sebastien; Gruchlik, Yolanta; McDonald, S.; Joll, Cynthia; Heitz, Anna (2016)The impact of elevated bromide concentrations (399 to 750µg/L) on the formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs), namely trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, and adsorbable organic halogen ...