Increased paediatric hospitalizations for empyema in Australia after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
MetadataShow full item record
Objective To examine rates of paediatric hospitalization for empyema and pneumonia in Australia before and after the introduction of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). Methods Rates of paediatric hospitalization for empyema and pneumonia (bacterial, viral and all types) were calculated following the codes of the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision (ICD-10) as a principal diagnosis. The expected number of hospitalizations after the PCV7 was introduced was estimated on the basis of the observed number of hospitalizations before the introduction of the PCV7. Incidence rate differences (IRDs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. Hospitalization incidence in each study period was expressed as the number of hospitalizations per million (10 6 ) person-years. The population of children aged 0-19 years in Australia from 1998 to 2004 and from 2005 to 2010, as reported by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, was used to calculate the number of person-years in each period. Findings In the 5 years following the introduction of the PCV7, hospitalizations for pneumonia were fewer than expected (15 304 fewer; 95% confidence interval, CI: 14 646-15 960; IRD: -552 per 10 6 person-years; 95% CI: -576 to -529 per 10 6 person-years; IRR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.77-0.78). Hospitalizations for empyema, on the other hand, were more than expected (83 more; 95% CI: 37-128; IRD: 3 per 10 6 person-years; 95% CI: 1-5 per 10 6 person-years; IRR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.14-1.59). Reductions in hospitalizations were observed for all ICD-10 pneumonia codes across all age groups. The increase in empyema hospitalizations was only significant among children aged 1 to 4 years. Conclusion The introduction of the PCV7 in Australia was associated with a substantial decrease in hospitalizations for childhood pneumonia and a small increase in hospitalizations for empyema.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Comparison between Nasal Swabs and Nasopharyngeal Aspirates for, and Effect of Time in Transit on, Isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalisCarville, K.; Bowman, J.; Lehmann, Deborah; Riley, T. (2007)pmc logo image Logo of jcm Note: Performing your original search, comparison nasal swabs lehmann, in PubMed Central will retrieve 7 citations. Journal List > J Clin Microbiol > v.45(1); Jan 2007 Abstract ...
Long-term outcomes of the western australian trial of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms: Secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trialMcCaul, K.; Lawrence-Brown, Michael; Dickinson, J.; Norman, P. (2016)Importance: Mortality from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remains high. The benefit of screening older men for AAAs needs to be assessed in a range of health care settings. Objective: To assess the influence ...
McNeil, J.; Wolfe, R.; Woods, R.; Tonkin, A.; Donnan, G.; Nelson, M.; Reid, Christopher; Lockery, J.; Kirpach, B.; Storey, E.; Shah, R.; Williamson, J.; Margolis, K.; Ernst, M.; Abhayaratna, W.; Stocks, N.; Fitzgerald, S.; Orchard, S.; Trevaks, R.; Beilin, L.; Johnston, C.; Ryan, J.; Radziszewska, B.; Jelinek, M.; Malik, M.; Eaton, C.; Brauer, D.; Cloud, G.; Wood, E.; Mahady, S.; Satterfield, S.; Grimm, R.; Murray, A. (2018)Background: Aspirin is a well-established therapy for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. However, its role in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is unclear, especially in older persons, who ...