Synthesis and characterization of hydrochars produced by hydrothermal carbonization of oil palm shell
MetadataShow full item record
In this paper, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is applied to oil palm shells to produce a solid fuel known as hydrochar. The effect of reaction temperatures 220–290 °C at reaction time 30 min, and a biomass to water ratio of 0.15 g/g (15 wt %) was investigated for synthesis of hydrochar. The hydrochar yield percentage decreased from 62.4 to 43 % with increasing temperature from 220 to 290 °C. In addition, carbon percentage increased with an increase in temperature from 26.93 (oil palm shell) to 63.77 % (hydrochar produced at 290 °C). The higher heating value (HHV) tended to increase from 12.24 MJ/kg (oil palm shell) to 26.80 MJ/kg for hydrochar products. The raw palm shell and hydrochars were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Branuer‐Emmett‐Teller (BET), Field Emission Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Surface porosity of hydrochar product increased, which resulted in a compacted surface and large surface area. BET surface area, total pore volume, and average pore diameter were improved from 0.316 m2/g, 0.001 29 cm3/g, and 45.1153 nm to 12.5996 m2/g, 0.0557 cm3/g, and 113.4120 nm, respectively, at 260 °C.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Nizamuddin, S.; Jayakumar, N.; Sahu, J.; Ganesan, P.; Bhutto, A.; Mujawar, Mubarak (2015)Palm shell is one of the most plentiful wastes of the palm oil mill industry. This study identifies the capability of hydrothermal carbonization process (HTC) to convert palm shell into high energy hydrochar. The influence ...
Chemical, dielectric and structural characterization of optimized hydrochar produced from hydrothermal carbonization of palm shellNizamuddin, S.; Mujawar, Mubarak; Tiripathi, M.; Jayakumar, N.; Sahu, J.; Ganesan, P. (2016)This paper primarily investigates the possible optimum conditions for maximum yield production of hydrochar through hydrothermal carbonization of palm shell. The hydrochar and the palm shell have been characterized to ...
Upgradation of chemical, fuel, thermal, and structural properties of rice husk through microwave-assisted hydrothermal carbonizationNizamuddin, S.; Siddiqui, M.; Baloch, H.; Mujawar, Mubarak; Griffin, G.; Madapusi, S.; Tanksale, A. (2018)The process parameters of microwave hydrothermal carbonization (MHTC) have significant effect on yield of hydrochar. This study discusses the effect of process parameters on hydrochar yield produced from MHTC of rice husk. ...