Synthesis and characterization of hydrochars produced by hydrothermal carbonization of oil palm shell
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Biomass is a renewable and environmental-friendly energy source to fulfill future energy demands in the form of biofuels. Oil palm biomass is an agricultural waste product produced in large quantities in Malaysia and Indonesia which can be used to produce energy. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is applied to oil palm shells to produce a solid fuel known as hydrochar. The effect of reaction temperatures 220°-290°C at reaction time 30 min, and a biomass/water ratio of 0.15 g/g (15 wt %) was studied for the synthesis of hydrochar. The hydrochar yield percentage decreased from 62.4 to 43% with increasing temperature from 220° to 290°C. With an increase in temperature, carbon percentage increased from 26.93 (oil palm shell) to 63.77% (hydrochar produced at 290°C). The higher heating value tended to increase from 12.24 MJ/kg (oil palm shell) to 26.80 MJ/kg for hydrochar products. The H/C and O/C atomic ratios of the raw palm shells also decreased in the hydrochar product, improving the fuel quality. The structure of the oil palm shells was eroded effectively by the HTC process, enhancing the surface porosity of the hydrochar product. This phenomenon led to a more compacted surface with a larger surface area. Section headings: 307*3.2 NON-FOSSIL FUELS.
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