Dynamic diffraction studies on the crystallization, phase transformation, and activation energies in anodized titania nanotubes
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The influence of calcination time on the phase transformation and crystallization kinetics of anodized titania nanotube arrays was studied using in-situ isothermal and non-isothermal synchrotron radiation diffraction from room temperature to 900 â—¦ C. Anatase first crystallized at 400 â—¦ C, while rutile crystallized at 550 â—¦ C. Isothermal heating of the anodized titania nanotubes by an increase in the calcination time at 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, and 650 â—¦ C resulted in a slight reduction in anatase abundance, but an increase in the abundance of rutile because of an anatase-to-rutile transformation. The Avrami equation was used to model the titania crystallization mechanism and the Arrhenius equation was used to estimate the activation energies of the titania phase transformation. Activation energies of 22 (10) kJ/mol for the titanium-to-anatase transformation, and 207 (17) kJ/mol for the anatase-to-rutile transformation were estimated.
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