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dc.contributor.authorNadarajah, Nandakumaran
dc.contributor.authorKhodabandeh, Amir
dc.contributor.authorWang, K.
dc.contributor.authorChoudhury, Mohammad
dc.contributor.authorTeunissen, Peter
dc.identifier.citationNadarajah, N. and Khodabandeh, A. and Wang, K. and Choudhury, M. and Teunissen, P. 2018. Multi-GNSS PPP-RTK: From large- to Small-Scale networks. Sensors. 18 (4): Article ID 1078.

Precise point positioning (PPP) and its integer ambiguity resolution-enabled variant, PPP-RTK (real-time kinematic), can benefit enormously from the integration of multiple global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). In such a multi-GNSS landscape, the positioning convergence time is expected to be reduced considerably as compared to the one obtained by a single-GNSS setup. It is therefore the goal of the present contribution to provide numerical insights into the role taken by the multi-GNSS integration in delivering fast and high-precision positioning solutions (sub-decimeter and centimeter levels) using PPP-RTK. To that end, we employ the Curtin PPP-RTK platform and process data-sets of GPS, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and Galileo in stand-alone and combined forms. The data-sets are collected by various receiver types, ranging from high-end multi-frequency geodetic receivers to low-cost single-frequency mass-market receivers. The corresponding stations form a large-scale (Australia-wide) network as well as a small-scale network with inter-station distances less than 30 km. In case of the Australia-wide GPS-only ambiguity-float setup, 90% of the horizontal positioning errors (kinematic mode) are shown to become less than five centimeters after 103 min. The stated required time is reduced to 66 min for the corresponding GPS + BDS + Galieo setup. The time is further reduced to 15 min by applying single-receiver ambiguity resolution. The outcomes are supported by the positioning results of the small-scale network.

dc.publisherMDPI Publishing
dc.titleMulti-GNSS PPP-RTK: From large- to Small-Scale networks
dc.typeJournal Article
curtin.departmentSchool of Earth and Planetary Sciences (EPS)
curtin.accessStatusOpen access

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