Accessories make the outfit: Accessory chromosomes and other dispensable DNA regions in plant-pathogenic fungi
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Fungal pathogen genomes can often be divided into core and accessory regions. Accessory regions ARs) may be comprised of either ARs (within core chromosomes (CCs) or wholly dispensable (accessory) chromosomes (ACs). Fungal ACs and ARs typically accumulate mutations and structural rearrangements more rapidly over time than CCs and many harbor genes relevant to host-pathogen interactions. These regions are of particular interest in plant pathology and include host-specific virulence factors and secondary metabolite synthesis gene clusters. This review outlines known ACs and ARs in fungal genomes, methods used for their detection, their common properties that differentiate them from the core genome, and what is currently known of their various roles in pathogenicity. Reports on the evolutionary processes generating and shaping AC and AR compartments are discussed, including repeat induced point mutation and breakage fusion bridge cycles. Previously ACs have been studied extensively within key genera, including Fusarium, Zymoseptoria, and Alternaria, but are growing in frequency of observation and perceived importance across a wider range of fungal species. Recent advances in sequencing technologies permit affordable genome assembly and resequencing of populations that will facilitate further discovery and routine screening of ACs.
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Accessories Make the Outfit: Accessory Chromosomes and Other Dispensable DNA Regions in Plant-Pathogenic FungiBertazzoni, S.; Williams, A.; Jones, D.; Syme, R.; Tan, K.; Hane, James (2018)Fungal pathogen genomes can often be divided into core and accessory regions. Accessory regions ARs) may be comprised of either ARs (within core chromosomes (CCs) or wholly dispensable (accessory) chromosomes (ACs). Fungal ...
Syme, Robert; Tan, Kar-Chun; Rybak, Katarzyna; Friesen, T.; McDonald, B.; Oliver, Richard; Hane, James (2018)We report a fungal pan-genome study involving Parastagonospora spp., including 21 isolates of the wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, 10 of the grass-infecting Parastagonospora avenae, and 2 of a ...
Chromosome-level genome assembly and manually-curated proteome of model necrotroph Parastagonospora nodorum Sn15 reveals a genome-wide trove of candidate effector homologs, and redundancy of virulence-related functions within an accessory chromosomeBertazzoni, Stefania; Jones, Darcy; Phan, Huyen; Tan, Kar-Chun ; Hane, James (2021)Background: The fungus Parastagonospora nodorum causes septoria nodorum blotch (SNB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and is a model species for necrotrophic plant pathogens. The genome assembly of reference isolate Sn15 was ...