Pan-parastagonospora comparative genome analysis-effector prediction and genome evolution
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We report a fungal pan-genome study involving Parastagonospora spp., including 21 isolates of the wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, 10 of the grass-infecting Parastagonospora avenae, and 2 of a closely related undefined sister species. We observed substantial variation in the distribution of polymorphisms across the pan-genome, including repeat-induced point mutations, diversifying selection and gene gains and losses.We also discovered chromosome-scale inter and intraspecific presence/absence variation of some sequences, suggesting the occurrence of one or more accessory chromosomes or regions that may play a role in host-pathogen interactions. The presence of known pathogenicity effector loci SnToxA, SnTox1, and SnTox3 varied substantially among isolates. Three P. nodorum isolates lacked functional versions for all three loci, whereas three P. avenae isolates carried one or both of the SnTox1 and SnTox3 genes, indicating previously unrecognized potential for discovering additional effectors in the P. nodorum-wheat pathosystem. We utilized the pangenomic comparative analysis to improve the prediction of pathogenicity effector candidates, recovering the three confirmed effectors among our top-ranked candidates. We propose applying this pan-genomic approach to identify the effector repertoire involved in other host-microbe interactions involving necrotrophic pathogens in the Pezizomycotina.
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Validation of genome-wide association studies as a tool to identify virulence factors in parastagonospora nodorumGao, Y.; Liu, Z.; Faris, J.; Richards, J.; Brueggeman, R.; Li, X.; Oliver, Richard; McDonald, B.; Friesen, T. (2016)Parastagonospora nodorum is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing Septoria nodorum blotch on wheat. We have identified nine necrotrophic effector–host dominant sensitivity gene interactions, and we have cloned three of ...
Tan, Kar-Chun; Phan, Huyen Phan; Rybak, K.; John, E.; Chooi, Y.; Solomon, P.; Oliver, Richard (2015)Necrotrophic diseases of wheat cause major losses in most wheat growing areas of world. Tan spot (caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis) and septoria nodorum blotch (SNB; Parastagonospora nodorum) have been shown to ...
Phan, Huyen; Rybak, K.; Furuki, Eiko; Breen, S.; Solomon, P.; Oliver, Richard; Tan, Kar-Chun (2016)Fungal effector-host sensitivity gene interactions play a key role in determining the outcome of septoria nodorum blotch disease (SNB) caused by Parastagonospora nodorum on wheat. The pathosystem is complex and mediated ...