Material Selection for Interfacial Bond Layer in Electronic Packaging
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In electronic packaging, typically two or more thin dissimilar plates or layers are bonded together by an extremely thin adhesive bond layer. Electronic assemblies are usually operated under high power conditions which predictably produces a high temperature environment in the electronic devices. Therefore, thermal mismatch shear and peeling stress inevitably arise at the interfaces of the bonded dissimilar materials due to differences in Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) typically during the high temperature change in the bond process. As a result, delamination failure may occur during manufacturing, machining, and field use. As such, these thermo-mechanical stresses play a very significant role in the design and reliability of the electronic packaging assembly. Consequently, critical investigations of interfacial stresses under variable load conditions in composite structure can result in a better design of electronic packaging with higher reliability and minimize or eliminate the risk of functional failure. In order to formulize bond material selection, analytical studies are carried out in order to study the influence of bond layer parameters on interfacial thermal stresses of a given package. These parameters include Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), poison's ratio, temperature, thickness, and stiffness (compliant and stiff) of the bond layer. From the study, stiffness and bond layer thickness are identified as the key parameters influencing interfacial shearing and peeling stresses. The other parameters namely CTE, poisons ratio has shown insignificant influence on interfacial stresses due to the very thin section of bond layer compared to the top and bottom layers. The results also show that the interfacial stresses increases proportionally with the increase of temperature in the layers. Therefore, it is very important that the temperature is maintained as low as possible during the chip manufacturing and operating stages. Since only two parameters namely stiffness and bond layer thickness are identified as the key parameters, the interface thermal mismatch stresses can be reduced or eliminated by controlling these two parameters only. Therefore the identification of suitable bond layer parameters selection with reasonable accuracy is possible even without performing optimization process. Finally, this paper proposes a Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) bond material selection approach using rule of mixture material design. The outcome of this research can be seen in the forms of practical and beneficial tools for interfacial stress evaluation and physical design and fabrication of layered assemblies. The Engineers can utilize this research outcome in conjunction with guidelines for electronic packaging under variable thermal properties of layered composites.
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